Why Do P Waves Bend When They Travel Into The Outer Core From The Mantle

Why Do P Waves Bend When They Travel Into The Outer Core From The Mantle?

4. Figure 19.2a: P-waves generally bend outward as they travel through the mantle due to the increased density of mantle rocks with depth. … This indicates that P-waves slow down in the outer core suggesting that this layer has a significantly different composition from the mantle and may actually be liquid.

What happens to P-waves when they reach the core mantle boundary?

The P–wave velocity increases smoothly beneath 700 km through the lower mantle to ∼ 13.6 km/s at the core–mantle boundary. Just above this boundary there appears to be a layer in which the velocity flattens out or may even decrease slightly.

Can P-waves travel through the outer core?

S waves cannot pass through the liquid outer core but P waves can. The waves are refracted as they travel through the Earth due to a change in density of the medium.

Why do P-waves travel faster through the inner core than the outer core?

Generally p-wave velocity increases with depth and increases with increasing rigidity of a material. Therefore p-waves travel fastest through the solid iron inner core of Earth.

What do P-waves tell us about the outer core compared to the mantle?

P-waves slow down at the mantle core boundary so we know the outer core is less rigid than the mantle. S-waves disappear at the mantle core boundary so the outer core is liquid.

When P waves leave the mantle and enter the outer core they?

4. Figure 19.2a: P-waves generally bend outward as they travel through the mantle due to the increased density of mantle rocks with depth. When P-waves strike the outer core however they bend downward when traveling through the outer core and bend again when they leave.

Why do P waves travel faster?

P-waves travel 60% faster than S-waves on average because the interior of the Earth does not react the same way to both of them. P-waves are compression waves that apply a force in the direction of propagation. … The energy is thus less easily transmitted through the medium and S-waves are slower.

What do P-waves travel through?

P waves travel through rock the same way that sound waves do through air. That is they move as pressure waves. … P waves can travel through solids liquids and gases. That’s one big difference between them and the other types of seismic waves which typically travel only through solids (such as rock).

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Where do P-waves travel fastest quizlet?

P-WAVES travel fastest through rock . P-waves can travel in any kind of material( liquid solid).

Do P-waves travel faster through liquid or solid?

There are two types of body waves: P-waves travel fastest and through solids liquids and gases S-waves only travel through solids. Surface waves are the slowest but they do the most damage in an earthquake.

Why do P waves slow down in a liquid?

Seismic waves travel more quickly through denser materials and therefore generally travel more quickly with depth. … Molten areas within the Earth slow down P waves and stop S waves because their shearing motion cannot be transmitted through a liquid.

How fast do P waves travel?

5 to 8 km/s
Typical values for P wave velocity in earthquakes are in the range 5 to 8 km/s. The precise speed varies according to the region of the Earth’s interior from less than 6 km/s in the Earth’s crust to 13.5 km/s in the lower mantle and 11 km/s through the inner core.

Which electromagnetic wave travels the fastest?

Thus as Radio Waves consist of the longest wavelength hence they travel the fastest among all the electromagnetic waves.

What is the importance of determining the difference in the arrival time of P wave and S wave?

Difference in arrival times between P and S waves can be used to determine the distance between the station and an earthquake. By knowing how far away the quake was from three stations we can draw a circle around each station with a radius equal to its distance from the earthquake.

How do P waves differ from S waves?

they differ from each other in speed. P-waves are the fastest waves that travel inside earth and can travel in all mediums. S- waves cannot travel in fluids as they dont have shear force.

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Do P waves travel through liquid?

P and S waves travel through the planet Earth after an earthquake. Scientists studying the waves produced by earthquakes learned that Earth’s core has separate liquid and solid layers. S waves do not travel through liquid but P waves do.

What happens to P waves and S waves from a crustal earthquake when the waves reach Earth’s outer core?

What happens P waves are refracted when they reach the outer core? P waves can travel through a liquid and a solid and are refracted when they enter a new substance such as the outer core. A build up of stress in Earth’s crust do to mantle convection.

Which seismic wave can travel to the mantle not the outer core?

P waves

P waves can travel through Earth’s outer core but S waves cannot. Because of this scientists know 16. Scientists use the properties of seismic waves to figure out the structure of Earth’s interior. For example seismic waves travel faster through denser layers than through less dense layers.

Where do seismic waves bend toward?

Because of the gradual increase in density (and therefore rock strength) with depth all waves are refracted (toward the lower density material) as they travel through homogenous parts of Earth and thus tend to curve outward toward the surface.

In what form does the motion caused by earthquakes travels outward from the focus?

seismic waves

Earthquake energy is in the form of seismic waves. The seismic waves radiate out from a central point called the focus or hypocenter like ripples moving outward from a pebble tossed into a lake.

Which earthquakes waves travel through the outer core?

P waves can travel through the liquid outer core. An S wave is a different beast. In an S wave the rock particles slide past one another undergoing shear — so an S wave is also called a shear wave.

What does P in P wave stand for?

Compressional waves are also called P-Waves (P stands for “primary”) because they are always the first to arrive. … Shear waves propagate more slowly through the Earth than compressional waves and arrive second hence their name S- or secondary waves.Sep 10 2008

What is the movement of P waves?

Seismic P waves are also called compressional or longitudinal waves they compress and expand (oscillate) the ground back and forth in the direction of travel like sound waves that move back and forth as the waves travel from source to receiver.

How does the P wave seismic velocity of the lower mantle compare to the P wave seismic velocity of the outer core?

Why do P waves have a higher velocity in the lower mantle than in the core even though the core has a much higher density? With the p wave’s velocity plotted from a depth of 0 km to a depth of 6371 km it shows the p wave velocity reaching about 14 km/sec by the time it reaches the bottom of the mantle.

In which location did the P waves arrive earliest?


As shown in Figure 1 the point on the surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter. An earthquake epicenter can be located from records made of earthquake waves on devices called seismographs.
Recording Station Albuquerque
P-wave arrival time 12:08-45 MST
S-wave arrival time 12:10-15 MST
Lag time? seconds

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How is the motion of P waves different from the motion of S waves quizlet?

What are the differences between P waves S waves and surface waves? P waves are the fastest and have the lowest amplitudes S waves are the second fastest and have the second lowest amplitudes surface waves are the slowest and have the highest amplitudes.

How do P waves move quizlet?

P waves are a type of compression waves which means they push and pull the particles of the rock as they move through it. S Waves or shear waves are the second type of body wave. They do not travel as rapidly through the Earth as P waves.

What type of motion does a P wave have quizlet?

Compressional motion (P waves) or Shear motion (S waves) They travel outward in all directions from their point of origin.

What type of motion is associated with P waves S waves?

They are called primary waves because they are the first type of wave to arrive at seismic recording stations. P waves can travel through solids liquids and even gases. S waves shake the ground in a shearing or crosswise motion that is perpendicular to the direction of travel.

What is Wave bending called?

Refraction is the “bending of waves” .

Why do we believe Earth’s outer core is a liquid?

Scientists figured out that the outer core must be liquid because S waves do not pass through it but P waves do. … Thus by observing many seismic waves from many earthquakes all over the world scientists have been able to work out the density of different parts of the Earth (i.e. the core mantle and crust).

What is the slowest wave?

surface waves

The slowest waves surface waves arrive last. They travel only along the surface of the Earth. There are two types of surface waves: Love and Rayleigh waves. Love waves move back and forth horizontally.

Can You Feel P waves?

The waves also travel through the Earth at different speeds. The fastest wave called the “P” (primary) wave arrives first and it usually registers a sharp jolt. … “It feels more abrupt but it attenuates very quickly so if you are far away you often won’t feel the P wave.”

What is the P wave of an earthquake?

A P wave or compressional wave is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth in the same direction and the opposite direction as the direction the wave is moving.

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