When Did This Start

Where was COVID-19 first discovered?

The first known infections from SARS-CoV-2 were discovered in Wuhan China. The original source of viral transmission to humans remains unclear as does whether the virus became pathogenic before or after the spillover event.

How long have coronaviruses existed?

The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all coronaviruses is estimated to have existed as recently as 8000 BCE although some models place the common ancestor as far back as 55 million years or more implying long term coevolution with bat and avian species.

What causes COVID-19?

COVID-19 is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus strain.

When did the coronavirus disease receive its name?

The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) announced “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)” as the name of the new virus on 11 February 2020. This name was chosen because the virus is genetically related to the coronavirus responsible for the SARS outbreak of 2003. While related the two viruses are different.

Who issued the official name of COVID-19?

The official names COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 were issued by the WHO on 11 February 2020.

Can the coronavirus disease be transmitted through water?

Drinking water is not transmitting COVID-19. And if you swim in a swimming pool or in a pond you cannot get COVID-19 through water. But what can happen if you go to a swimming pool which is crowded and if you are close to other the people and if someone is infected then you can be of course affected.

What are coronaviruses?

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

How long does the virus that causes COVID-19 last on surfaces?

Recent research evaluated the survival of the COVID-19 virus on different surfaces and reported that the virus can remain viable for up to 72 hours on plastic and stainless steel up to four hours on copper and up to 24 hours on cardboard.

Can you get COVID-19 from faeces?

The risk of catching the COVID-19 virus from the faeces of an infected person appears to be low. There is some evidence that the COVID-19 virus may lead to intestinal infection and be present in faeces.

Is COVID-19 caused by a virus or a bacteria?

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a virus NOT by bacteria.

Do smokers suffer from worse COVID-19 symptoms?

Early research indicates that compared to non-smokers having a history of smoking may substantially increase the chance of adverse health outcomes for COVID-19 patients including being admitted to intensive care requiring mechanical ventilation and suffering severe health consequences.

Who are at higher risk of developing serious illness from COVID-19?

Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease diabetes chronic respiratory disease and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

How do viruses get their name?

Viruses are named based on their genetic structure to facilitate the development of diagnostic tests vaccines and medicines. Virologists and the wider scientific community do this work so viruses are named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

Has the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 been previously identified in humans?

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. The new virus was subsequently named the “COVID-19 virus”.

Can the coronavirus survive on surfaces?

It is not certain how long the virus that causes COVID-19 survives on surfaces but it seems likely to behave like other coronaviruses. A recent review of the survival of human coronaviruses on surfaces found large variability ranging from 2 hours to 9 days (11).

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The survival time depends on a number of factors including the type of surface temperature relative humidity and specific strain of the virus.

Is Covaxin approved by UK?

‘Covaxin’ one of the vaccines being used nationwide in the inoculation campaign against the COVID-19 pandemic is on the U.K.’s list of approved COVID-19 vaccines for international travellers from Monday.

What is the COVID-19 Law Lab?

The COVID-19 Law Lab is a database of laws that countries have implemented in response to the pandemic. It includes state of emergency declarations quarantine measures disease surveillance legal measures relating to mask-wearing social distancing and access to medication and vaccines.

How long will New Zealand borders stay closed?

New Zealand to stay closed to foreigners for another 5 months as it begins to relax few border restrictions. New Zealand’s Covid-19 Response Minister Chris Hipkins said New Zealanders stranded in Australia could return home from mid-January and Kiwis travelling from elsewhere would be allowed in a month later.

Can COVID-19 spread in hot and humid climates?

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From the evidence so far the COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in ALL AREAS including areas with hot and humid weather. Regardless of climate adopt protective measures if you live in or travel to an area reporting COVID-19. The best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is by frequently cleaning your hands.

By doing this you eliminate viruses that may be on your hands and avoid infection that could occur by then touching your eyes mouth and nose. Studies suggest that coronaviruses (including preliminary information on the COVID-19 virus) may persist on surfaces for a few hours or up to several days.

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What is the COVID-19 technology access pool?

C-TAP was launched by WHO in partnership with the Government of Costa Rica under a global Solidarity Call to Action endorsed by nearly 40 Member States. WHO C-TAP implementing partners include the Medicines Patent Pool Open COVID Pledge UN Technology Bank and Unitaid.

Is handwashing recommended to prevent the spread of COVID-19?

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With COVID-19 transmission mainly spreading between people through direct indirect (through contaminated objects or surfaces) or close contact with infected people via mouth and nose secretions washing hands with soap and running water is of critical importance. To stop the spread of COVID-19 along with other COVID appropriate behaviours the practice of handwashing at regular intervals is a must after coughing or sneezing when caring for the sick after using the toilet before eating while preparing food and after handling animals or animal waste. Handwashing after touching common surfaces such as doorknobs or handles or after one comes back home from visiting a public place will keep ourselves and others around us safe.

What are the known coronaviruses that can infect people?

Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people after 229E NL63 OC43 HKU1 MERS-CoV and the original SARS-CoV.

What is the definition of a COVID-19 death?

A COVID-19 death is defined for surveillance purposes as a death resulting from a clinically compatible illness in a probable or confirmed COVID-19 case unless there is a clear alternative cause of death that cannot be related to COVID-19 disease (e.g. trauma). There should be no period of complete recovery between the illness and death

What does it mean that coronaviruses are zoonotic?

Coronaviruses are zoonotic meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans.

How long should I wash my hands during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Thorough hand hygiene after any cough or sneeze is required. The WHO also recommends that individuals wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds especially after going to the toilet or when hands are visibly dirty before eating and after blowing one’s nose.

What are some of the animals that are susceptible to COVID-19?

Studies have identified a range of animals —such as cats ferrets hamsters non-human primates minks tree shrews raccoon dogs fruit bats and rabbits— that are susceptible and permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection[62][63][64] Some institutions have advised those infected with SARS‑CoV‑2 to restrict contact with animals.[65][66]

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Can asymptomatic people transmit COVID-19?

Yes infected people can transmit the virus both when they have symptoms and when they don’t have symptoms. This is why it is important that all people who are infected are identified by testing isolated and depending on the severity of their disease receive medical care.

Has the coronavirus disease been detected in blood and stool?

COVID-19 virus has been detected in blood and stool as had the coronaviruses responsible for SARS and MERS (14 16 19-21). The duration and frequency of shedding of COVID-19 virus in stool and potentially in urine is unknown.

What is an asymptomatic case of COVID-19?

An asymptomatic case is an individual who has a laboratory confirmed positive test and who has no symptoms during the complete course of infection.

What is asymptomatic transmission?

An asymptomatic laboratory-confirmed case is a person infected with COVID-19 who does not develop symptoms. Asymptomatic transmission refers to transmission of the virus from a person who does not develop symptoms.

There are few reports of laboratory-confirmed cases who are truly asymptomatic and to date there has been no documented asymptomatic transmission. This does not exclude the possibility that it may occur. Asymptomatic cases have been reported as part of contact tracing efforts in some countries.

Is it safe to take paracetamol before receiving the COVID-19 vaccine?

Taking painkillers such as paracetamol before receiving the COVID-19 vaccine to prevent side effects is not recommended. This is because it is not known how painkillers may affect how well the vaccine works.

What is a healthy diet during the COVID-19 pandemic?

• Every day eat a mix of wholegrains like wheat maize and rice legumes like lentils and beans plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables with some foods from animal sources (e.g. meat fish eggs and milk).

• Choose wholegrain foods like unprocessed maize millet oats wheat and brown rice when you can they are rich in valuable fibre and can help you feel full for longer.

• For snacks choose raw vegetables fresh fruit and unsalted nuts.

What is the difference between asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic COVID-19?

Yes both terms refer to people who do not have symptoms. The difference is that asymptomatic refers to people who are infected but never develop symptoms during the period of infection while pre-symptomatic refers to infected people who have not yet developed symptoms but do go on to develop symptoms later.

How is the COVID-19 Infection Fatality Rate calculated?

This metric is calculated by dividing the total number of deaths from the disease by the total number of infected individuals hence in contrast to the CFR the IFR incorporates asymptomatic and undiagnosed infections as well as reported cases.

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