Both plant and animal cells share some common structures that are essential for their functioning. These structures are the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum.
The cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It is made up of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins and carbohydrates that help with cell recognition.
The cytoplasm is the jelly-like substance that fills the cell and contains various organelles such as mitochondria and ribosomes. It is where most of the cellular processes occur.
The nucleus is the control center of the cell that contains the genetic material in the form of DNA. It regulates the cell’s activities by controlling the synthesis of proteins and the cell division process.
Ribosomes are small structures responsible for protein synthesis in the cell. They can be found in the cytoplasm and on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Mitochondria are often referred to as the “powerhouses” of the cell since they produce energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. They are double-membrane-bound organelles that have their own DNA.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membranes that extend throughout the cytoplasm. It has two types: rough ER, which is studded with ribosomes and involved in protein synthesis and transport, and smooth ER, which is involved in lipid synthesis and detoxification.
While both plant and animal cells share these structures, there are some differences between them. One of the main differences is the presence of chloroplasts in plant cells, which are responsible for photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that allows plants to convert light energy into chemical energy.
Another major difference between plant and animal cells is the presence of a cell wall in plant cells. The cell wall provides structural support and protects the cell from external stressors. Animal cells do not have a cell wall.
Plant and animal cells share many common structures such as the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. These structures are essential for the proper functioning of both types of cells. However, plant cells also contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis and a cell wall for structural support, which are not found in animal cells.