In plant cells, Photosynthesis take place in Chloroplast, which contains chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are surrounded by a double membrane and contain a third inner membrane, called the thylakoid membrane, that forms long folds within the organelle.
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose (sugar) and other organic molecules. This process is vital for the survival of these organisms, as it allows them to produce their own food and energy from inorganic raw materials.
The process of photosynthesis takes place in an organelle called the chloroplast that sits in the mesophyll of the leaves and is found in the cells of green plants and algae. Photosynthesis primarily takes place in the leaves, with a smaller amount in the stems, and has both a light-independent and light-dependent process.
Chloroplasts are organelles that are specialized for photosynthesis and are found in plant cells, algae, and some bacteria.
The thylakoid membrane is the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, in which energy from light is used to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).
These energy-rich molecules are then used in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis, which take place in the stroma of the chloroplast.
During light-dependent reactions, light energy is absorbed by pigments called chlorophyll, which is found in the thylakoid membranes.
The thylakoid membranes are organized into stacks called grana, and within the grana, the thylakoid membranes are folded into structures called thylakoids. These thylakoids contain pigment molecules that absorb light and convert it into chemical energy.
The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are initiated when a photon of light is absorbed by a pigment molecule, such as chlorophyll. This absorption of light energy causes the pigment molecule to become excited, and it transfers this energy to other molecules in the thylakoid membrane.
One of the products of light-dependent reactions is ATP, which is produced by a process called photophosphorylation. Photophosphorylation occurs when light energy is used to transfer a phosphate group from an inorganic molecule, such as water, to ATP. This process generates ATP, which is used to power many of the chemical reactions that take place in cells.
The other product of light-dependent reactions is NADPH, which is produced by a process called the electron transport chain. During the electron transport chain, light energy is used to transfer electrons from water to NADPH. These electrons are then used in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) to glucose (sugar).
The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis take place in the stroma of the chloroplast, which is the fluid-filled region outside of the thylakoid membranes.
During the light-independent reactions, the energy stored in ATP and NADPH is used to reduce CO2 to glucose. This process is called the Calvin cycle, and it involves several chemical reactions that convert CO2 into glucose.