What does tertiary consumer mean? It refers to the way every living organism obtains energy with food. In order to survive, all organisms must obtain energy in some way. Ecologists use the food chain of the food web to illustrate the flow of energy from one organism to another.
All organisms are classified on a different level depending on what they eat. These levels are called tropical levels. When you look at a food chain, the producers are the base. The producers make their own food; They don’t eat other things. Plants like grass are producers that use the sun’s energy to produce food (sugar).
Herbivores that eat grass or producers are classified as primary consumers; Secondary consumers who eat the primary consumers are by definition carnivores. A tertiary consumer is the fourth trophic level in the food chain after producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers.
What Is a Tertiary Consumer?
Tertiary consumers are those who eat the secondary consumers (large predators). For example, owls eat snakes. These organisms are sometimes referred to as apex predators because they are usually at the top of food chains, feeding on both primary and secondary consumers.
These predators hunt for food and are considered to be the strongest and most aggressive animals around.
The tertiary consumers could be both exclusive carnivores and omnivores, feeding on both primary and secondary consumers. Their food can consist of only meat or also contain plants. A hawk, for example, can feed on both primary consumers, such as birds, and secondary consumers, such as snakes.
The Function of Tertiary Consumers
One of the functions of tertiary consumers is to control the population and behavior of species at lower trophic levels. By preying on secondary consumers, the tertiary consumers regulate the population of those secondary consumers, thereby limiting the number of organisms that primary consumers prey on.
Tertiary consumers often occupy the top trophic level and are therefore not overtaken by any other animal; in this case, they are called “apex predators”. However, when they die, their bodies are consumed by scavengers and decomposers.
Species in the highest trophic levels play a very important role in ecosystems. They control populations or change the behavior of animals at lower trophic levels.
Animals at lower trophic levels can be carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores, and when their populations are limited, this reduces either predation or grazing pressures at the trophic levels below them.
This keeps the ecosystem dynamics in balance. For example, if a fox population grows too large, it could put pressure on rabbit populations. By getting ahead of the foxes, a tertiary consumer, such as goshawk, keeps populations under control and reduces the number of rabbits eaten by the foxes. This is called the trophic cascade.
What Is a Tertiary Consumer Example?
1. Big Cats
All big cats are examples of tertiary consumers such as lions, tigers, cougars, jaguars, etc. They are also all apex predators, meaning they have no predators in their natural environment. An exception is the leopard, which is occasionally hunted by lions, and tigers, with whom they share their habitat.
The physical characteristics of the big cats are typical of top predators. They have large teeth, jaws, and claws; They have forward-faced eyes for tracking prey. They also have strong muscles and can often run at high speeds.
Big cats eat prey from all trophic levels below them. These include herding herbivores such as buffalo, zebra, and wildebeest, as well as secondary feeders such as foxes and hyenas.
Sometimes they also eat large animals like crocodiles when they are on land. In the water, the crocodiles, who are also tertiary consumers, have the advantage and the big cats can be vulnerable to attack.
2. Marine Tertiary Consumers
There are many examples of tertiary consumers in marine ecosystems. The main producer of the oceans, phytoplankton, is generally consumed by microscopic organisms called zooplankton, and therefore the numerous animals that feed on zooplankton are secondary consumers.
Fish, jellyfish, and crustaceans are common secondary consumers, although basking sharks and some cetaceans also feed on zooplankton.
Phytoplankton are extremely numerous and provide ecosystems with a large amount of biomass and thus provide a lot of energy within the trophic pyramid. Due to the large amount of energy available, the secondary consumers (fish, etc.) are also numerous and many animals feed on them.
Tertiary consumers in marine environments include larger fish such as tuna, barracuda and grouper, seals and sea lions, jellyfish, dolphins, moray eels, turtles, sharks, and whales, some of which are apex predators such as the great white or tiger shark orca whales. In addition, many seabirds such as gulls, shearwaters, and penguins are tertiary consumers.
Humans are largely omnivores. They eat both plants and animals. In addition, they have a diverse diet and therefore consume food from virtually all trophic levels. We even eat decomposers like mushrooms.
If you choose to follow a vegetarian diet, you are considered a primary consumer as you only consume plant-based materials. However, if you also choose to eat chicken on a grain-only diet, you would fall into the secondary consumer category.
However, if the chicken also feeds on insects, it is a tertiary consumer. Given that humans can kill any animal with weapons, they are considered apex predators.
4. Polar Bear
The polar bear is the premier predator of the Arctic. It is a tertiary predator as it kills fish, seals, and penguins.
However, if a polar bear eats a seal that ate a penguin that ate a fish, it must not be considered a tertiary predator. This is because it went through several trophic stages in the process. Still, this complexity is usually ignored and polar bears are classified as tertiary and apex predators.
5. Secretary Bird
Secretary birds are well-known snake hunters. They hunt, kill and eat various reptiles and small mammals. In fact, venomous snakes like vipers and cobras are their favorite foods.
Adult secretary birds are endowed with exceptionally strong legs that can snap your bones with a single blow. This powerful weapon makes this bird virtually invincible.
Crocodiles rule the waters. They are exceptionally powerful in the water. They are among the animals with the strongest jaws in the animal kingdom.
This means they have one of the most powerful bites. Even big cats like tigers and lions cannot defeat crocodiles if they enter the water.
7. Pythons and Boas
Pythons can easily kill wildcats and foxes. But they would have a hard time taking down predators like big cats and adult crocodiles.
These boa snakes can also kill young big cats and crocodiles. Anacondas typically prey on caimans, which are much smaller than crocodiles.
Are Snakes Tertiary Consumers?
Yes, snakes can be considered tertiary consumers. Depending on their diet, snakes can be both secondary and tertiary feeders. When a snake eats a herbivore, such as a rabbit, it is a secondary eater. However, when a snake eats another carnivore, such as a frog, it is a tertiary consumer.
Is A Mouse a Tertiary Consumer?
No, the mouse is not a tertiary consumer, but a mouse can be considered a primary consumer. Primary consumers are animals that eat primary producers such as plants, algae or bacteria. In the case of a mouse, it feeds on plants, seeds, and fruits, making it an herbivore and primary consumer.
Therefore, a mouse is not a tertiary consumer. Tertiary consumers are animals that obtain their food by consuming primary consumers and secondary consumers
Is A Lion a Tertiary Consumer?
Yes, a lion is a tertiary consumer. Tertiary consumers are animals that obtain their food by consuming primary consumers and secondary consumers. Lions are apex predators, meaning they are at the top of the food chain and have no natural predators.
Lions feed on herbivores such as zebra, antelope, and buffalo, which are primary consumers, and also other carnivores such as hyenas and wild dogs, which are secondary consumers. Therefore, a lion is a tertiary consumer in the food chain.
Are Birds Tertiary Consumers?
Depending on their diet, birds can be primary, secondary, or tertiary consumers. Birds, which feed on plants, seeds, and fruits, are the main consumers.
Some birds eat insects, spiders, earthworms, lizards, snakes, fish, and frogs as their main food and are therefore secondary eaters.
However, birds that feed on other carnivores such as eagles are tertiary consumers. Therefore, whether a bird is a primary, secondary, or tertiary consumer depends on its diet.