What Criteria Are Primarily Used To Classify Mass Wasting?

What criteria are primarily used to classify mass wasting events?

15.2 Classification of Mass Wasting
  • There are three criteria used to classify slope failures:
  • The type of material that failed (e.g. bedrock or unconsolidated sediment)
  • The mechanism of the failure (how the material moved as it failed) and.
  • The rate of movement (how quickly the material moved).

What are the three criteria for classifying mass movements?

The three criteria used to describe slope failures are: The type of material that failed (typically either bedrock or unconsolidated sediment) The mechanism of the failure (how the material moved) The rate at which it moved.

How is mass movement classified?

Based on how the soil regolith or rock moves downslope as a whole mass movements can be broadly classified as creeps and landslides.

What are the two important characteristics of a mass wasting event?

Mass wasting is the movement of rock and soil down slope under the influence of gravity. Rock falls slumps and debris flows are all examples of mass wasting. Often lubricated by rainfall or agitated by seismic activity these events may occur very rapidly and move as a flow.

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What three criteria are considered classifying slope failure?

The three criteria used to describe slope failures are: The type of material that failed (typically either bedrock or unconsolidated sediment) The mechanism of the failure (how the material moved) The rate at which it moved.

Which factor is important in initiating mass wasting events?

Gravity is probably the ultimate driving force of mass wasting. The force of gravity pulls all things on the planet toward the center of the Earth. Without gravity mass wasting would not occur. But unlike many of the other factors humans have no influence or control on gravity.

What is slump mass wasting?

A slump is a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or a rock layer moves a short distance down a slope. Movement is characterized by sliding along a concave-upward or planar surface. … Translational slumps occur when a detached landmass moves along a planar surface.

What are the other criteria that must be met in order to promote the slope failure?

However the properties of the surface (friction) and the object itself (cohesion) both contribute to the potential for mass wasting. Processes that reduce friction or cohesion between grains will promote slope failure. The addition of excess water to the slope may accomplish both these goals.

What causes mass wasting?

Mass wasting which is sometimes called mass movement or slope movement is defined as the large movement of rock soil and debris downward due to the force of gravity. … The causes of mass wasting include an increased slope steepness increased water decreased vegetation and earthquakes.

What type of mass wasting involves sliding on well defined surfaces?

Solifluction. What type of mass wasting involves sliding on well-defined surfaces? Creep.

What are the different types of mass movements and how are they described?

Types of Mass Movement: Creep Fall Slip Flow Solifluction Rock Glaciers Slumping (Earthflow) Mudflow (lahar) Debris Flow Debris Slide Debris Avalanche Rockslide Rockfall Debris Fall. Deposits: Collurium Talus. Submarine Mass Movements: Slumps (Olistostromes) Debris Flows Turbidity Currents.

What are the 4 types of mass movement?

There are four different types of mass movement:
  • Rockfall. Bits of rock fall off the cliff face usually due to freeze-thaw weathering.
  • Mudflow. Saturated soil (soil filled with water) flows down a slope.
  • Landslide. Large blocks of rock slide downhill.
  • Rotational slip. Saturated soil slumps down a curved surface.

What factors determine the type of landslide that might occur?

Landslides can be initiated in slopes already on the verge of movement by rainfall snowmelt changes in water level stream erosion changes in ground water earthquakes volcanic activity disturbance by human activities or any combination of these factors.

What is the most important factor in causing mass movements?

Gravity is the main force responsible for mass movements. Gravity is a force that acts everywhere on the Earth’s surface pulling everything in a direction toward the center of the Earth. On a flat surface parallel to the Earth’s surface the force of gravity acts downward.

What are the controls and triggers of mass wasting?

Steep slopes widely varying altitude ranges (relief) the thickness of the loose earth material planes of weakness parallel to the slopes frequent freezing and thawing high water content in the earth material dry conditions with occasional heavy rainfall and sparse vegetation are the factors that contribute to …

Under what conditions does slope failure occur?

Slope failures occur when driving forces overcome resisting forces. The driving force is typically gravity and the resisting force is the slope material’s shear strength. When assessing a slope’s stability look for indications that physical processes are decreasing shear strength.

Which of the following describes slump?

Which of the following describes a slump? Blocks of rock break off and move together sliding along a curved path.

What are the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent mass-wasting?

Engineering solutions include barriers and retaining walls drainage pipes terracing the slope to reduce the steepness of the cuts and immediate revegetation. Rockfalls can be controlled or eliminated by the use of rock bolts cables and screens and by cutting back slopes to lesser gradients.

What factors activate the process of mass movement?

Such factors include: weathering or erosional debris cover on slopes which is usually liable to mass movement the character and structure of rocks such as resistant permeable beds prone to sliding because of underlying impermeable rocks the removal of the vegetation cover which increases the slope’s susceptibility …

What is the most common trigger for mass wasting in Texas?

Increased water content within the slope is the most common mass-wasting trigger.

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What are three possible causes of Oversteepened slopes?

erosion by rivers glaciers or ocean waves create oversteepened slopes. rock and soil slopes are weakened through saturation by snowmelt or heavy rains. earthquakes create stresses that make weak slopes fail.

How do you identify a slump?

Slump material moves as a whole unit leaving behind a crescent shaped scar. Figure 2. Trees with curved trunks are often signs that the hillside is slowly creeping downhill. Creep is the imperceptibly slow steady downward movement of slope-forming soil or rock.

What type of mass wasting is associated with the fastest speeds and wettest conditions?

A rock fall are the fastest of all landslide types and occurs when a rock falls through the air until it comes to rest on the ground—not too complicated. In Utah they are common in the spring and fall because of freeze-thaw weathering.

What do landslides and slumps have in common?

Back- tilting may occur near the scarp of the landslide and there is often a toe of displaced material. Rotational slides often occur because the internal strength of the material is overcome by its own weight. They are usually composed of relatively loose or uncon- solidated material.

What are the two general categories that classify slope remediation measures *?

5.1 Introduction. Properly designed slope protection and stabilization has to include two components: a vegetational-biological and a mechanical-structural component. For maximum effect both components must be integrally planned prior to road construction.

What factors contribute to the amount of erosion that occurs during a mass wasting event?

Some factors that determine the amount of erosion that occurs during a mass wasting event are the amount of vegetation on a slope the use of heavy machinery or blasting on a slope the amount of houses or buildings on a slope landscaping and how steep the slope is.

What are the signs to look for that would indicate mass wasting in an urban area?

Landslide warning signs
  • Springs seeps or saturated ground in areas that are not usually wet.
  • New cracks or unusual bulges in the ground street or sidewalks.
  • Soil moving away from foundations or the tilting or cracking of concrete floors and foundations.
  • Sunken or down-dropped road beds.

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Which type of mass wasting is described as the sliding of coherent rock material along a curved surface?

Slump

Slump – involves movement along a curved surface the upper part moving downward while the lower part moves outward. Slide – A descending rock mass remaining relatively coherent moving along one or more well defined surfaces.

What type of mass movement involves saturated material moving downslope?

Mass wasting

Glossary
solifluction Mass wasting involving the slow downslope movement of water-saturated surface materials especially the flow at high elevations or high latitudes where the flow is underlain by frozen soil.

Which type of mass wasting is characterized by extremely rapid rate of movement with the descent of material commonly triggered by earthquake or erosion?

A landslide is the movement of rock earth or debris down a sloped section of land. Landslides are caused by rain earthquakes volcanoes or other factors that make the slope unstable. Geologists scientists who study the physical formations of the Earth sometimes describe landslides as one type of mass wasting.

What is mass wasting explain the various processes of mass wasting?

Mass wasting is the movement of rock and soil down slope under the influence of gravity. … Rock falls slumps and debris flows are all examples of mass wasting. Often lubricated by rainfall or agitated by seismic activity these events may occur very rapidly and move as a flow.

How are the different mass movement processes classified?

Types of mass movement

A fall or topple happens when rocks and other sediments fall through the air and land at the bottom of a slope. Flows are a mixture of water rock and sediment. … A slide happens when a section of soil or rock suddenly gives way and moves down a slope.

How do Geologists classify mass movements?

If the material drops through the air vertically or nearly vertically it’s known as a fall. If the material moves as a mass along a sloping surface (without internal motion within the mass) it’s a slide. If the material has internal motion like a fluid it’s a flow.

What are examples of types of mass wasting quizlet?

Terms in this set (4)
  • Landslides. -most destructive -rock and soil slide quickly down steep slopes -can be caused by earthquakes.
  • Mudflows. -rapid downhill movement of mixture of water rock and soil -can occur after heavy rains in normally dry area -can be caused by earthquakes.
  • Slump. …
  • creep.

Classification of Mass Wasting Events

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