Mold is a type of fungus that grows on multicellular filaments called hyphae. These tubular branches have multiple nuclei that are genetically identical but form a single organism known as a colony. In contrast, yeast is a type of fungus that grows as a single cell.
Yeast and mold are both microorganisms, but both are eukaryotes and belong to the fungi kingdom. Eukaryotes, along with other organelles, have specific nuclei that have specific functions. Since they are the same kingdom, they differ in function, appearance, color, and mode of reproduction.
Molds VS Yeast
The main difference between yeast and mold is that yeast is a unicellular form of fungus whereas mold is a multicellular filament of fungus. This form consists of tubular branches with multicellular nuclei. Yeast reproduction takes place by budding. Molds reproduce by producing sexual or asexual spores.
There are 1500 types of yeast. They are used in industry for baking purposes, additives, alcohol production, and food and beverage. Yeasts are very common and are found in fruits, vegetables, the skin of mammals, etc.
On the other hand, about 400,000 types of mold have been found. It is also used in the industry for cheese making and other processes. Mold can also be dangerous by causing respiratory infections and allergies. Mold is usually found in damp, dark, or steamy areas.
Yeast is very common and is found in fruits and berries, stomach and skin of mammals. Mold is usually found in damp, dark, or humid areas.
Yeast is mostly white and filamentous. Although the mold is usually oval, it has a vague appearance and can be found in several shapes.
Molds have microscopic filaments called hyphae, but yeasts do not have true hyphae. Instead, they form multicellular structures called pseudohyphae.
Yeasts are not spore fungi and their colonies are soft, opaque, and cream-colored while molds are spore fungi and have filamentous colonies containing vegetative and aerial hyphae.
Yeast growth is primarily limited to a pH range of 4.0 to 4.5, but molds can grow over a wider range of pH levels than yeast.
Yeast identification is based on physiological examination and some important morphological differences. Most clinical types can be determined by ontogeny microscopy and asexual spore morphology.
Most yeasts reproduce asexually through mitosis. The most common form of it is called ” budding “. A few yeasts reproduce by binary fission, while molds reproduce by small spores (sexual or asexual).
Yeast converts carbohydrates into alcohol and carbon dioxide through anaerobic fermentation. Also, while obtaining carbon from hexose sugars, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes that break down biopolymers such as starch, cellulose, and lignin into more easily absorbable materials.
Yeast fungi can cause infections in people with weakened immune systems and are relatively less involved in food spoilage. Molds can cause allergic reactions and respiratory problems, especially perishables can pose more threats in terms of food spoilage and health concerns.
Yeast can be used for ethanol production, baking, vitamin supplements, and cell cycle studies. Some molds are used in food production, for example, Penicillium is used in the preparation of cheese, and Neurospora is used in the preparation of oncom, which is made from tofu by-products. Mold is also an important saprophytic organism.
What is Yeast?
Yeast refers to microscopic fungi that consist of an oval cell. It is a unicellular structure. Yeasts are oval and mostly colorless or white. The most obvious feature of yeast is its asexual reproduction method. Yeast produces daughter cells in the form of buds. Therefore, the method of asexual reproduction is called budding.
Yeast needs organic matter to get nutrients. They secrete enzymes into external food sources and digest them to obtain simpler forms of nutrients. Therefore, yeast can be used to produce ethanol through fermentation. It is also used in the bakery industry to raise dough.
What is Mold?
Mold refers to a growth form of fungus, which grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae. Colonies of molds are visible to the naked eye.
The multiplication of fungi occurs through vegetative reproduction. Tubular hyphae may contain a large number of nuclei with the same genetic composition. Mold grows on organic matter. It produces both sexual and asexual spores.
Like yeast, molds obtain their nutrients through the external enzymatic digestion of organic matter. They absorb nutrients through their cell wall. Molds are also used in food processing such as cheese, tempeh, and soy sauce production.
Main Difference Between Molds and Yeast
- Yeats refers to a microscopic fungus, consisting of a single, oval cell. Mold refers to a growth form of fungus, which grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
- Yeast is very common in the environment. Molds can be found in damp, dark or steam-filled areas.
- Yeast is oval in shape, and is colorless and smooth. Mold has a fuzzy appearance, and the colors can be green, orange, black, brown, purple, and pink.
- Yeast converts carbohydrates to alcohol during fermentation. Mold secretes hydrolytic enzymes to external food sources and absorbs nutrients.
- Yeast reproduces through budding. Mold reproduces through either sexual or asexual spores.
- Yeast is used in baking industry and in the production of ethanol. Mold is used in the production of cheese.
Similarities Between Molds and Yeasts
- Molds and yeasts are fungi.
- Furthermore, they are both eukaryotes and saprophytes.
- Also, they are important decomposers in the soil.
- Moreover, they share a similar cell structure.
- Besides, their cell walls contain chitin as the main compound.
- Both molds and yeasts are opportunistic pathogens in immune-compromised people.