Difference Between Mitosis and Binary Fission

The concept of cell division is very tricky for some because there are many small things happening inside the cell, all of which are of great importance to the whole cycle. However, different types of cell divisions such as mitosis and binary fission have unique characteristics.

Binary fission and mitosis are both forms of asexual reproduction in which a parent cell divides to create two identical daughter cells. Binary fission occurs mainly in prokaryotes (bacteria), while mitosis only occurs in eukaryotes, which are usually parts of complex organisms (e.g. plant and animal cells).

The primary function of binary fission is reproduction, while mitosis involves reproduction, cell repair, and growth.

Binary fission is a simple and fast process while mitosis is a complex process that requires more time than binary fission.

During mitosis, the spindle apparatus is formed and DNA is attached to the spindle for division. In binary fission, no spindle apparatus is formed and the DNA adheres to the cell membrane before cell division.

In binary fission, DNA replication and separation occur simultaneously, while in mitosis, DNA replication is complete long before cell division.

Difference btween binary fission and mitosis

Binary fission is not entirely reliable and sometimes daughter cells receive an unequal number of chromosomes. While in mitosis there is high fidelity replication where chromosome number is maintained by a checkpoint in metaphase. Errors also occur during mitosis, but less frequently than during fission.

Binary fission has three types: simple, transverse, and longitudinal binary fission. Simple binary fission occurs in amoebas, with the division passing through any plane.

Transverse binary fission occurs between parameciums and planarians, with the cytoplasmic plane of division matching with the transverse axis of the specimen. Binary longitudinal fission occurs in the euglena when the plane matches the longitudinal alignment.

Mitosis has four stages or phases namely: G1, S, G2, and the last mitotic phase which completes the cycle. The first to third stages form the so-called interphase.

Although no chromosome division occurs, this phase is characterized by rapid cellular metabolic activity affecting both the nucleus and cytoplasmic organs, making it the longest collective phase.

G1 is marked with RNA transcription and protein synthesis. S phase is detected by DNA synthesis. The G2 phase is primarily the acquisition of more cellular energy and a further increase in cell size, particularly the nucleolus.

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