Difference Between DNA And RNA Viruses             

A virus is a biological agent that can self-replicate inside a host cell. The infected cells by viruses may produce thousands of new copies of the original virus at an extraordinary rate. The genetic material of a virus can be either DNA or RNA.

Here are the common Differences Between DNA and RNA viruses.

  • The viruses that contain DNA as their genetic material are called the DNA viruses.
  • RNA viruses, on the other hand, contain RNA as their genetic material.
  • DNA viruses are mostly double-stranded while RNA viruses are single-stranded.
  • RNA mutation rate is higher than the DNA mutation rate.
  • DNA replication takes place in the nucleus while RNA replication takes place in the cytoplasm.
  • DNA viruses are stable while RNA viruses are unstable.
Difference between DNA and RNA viruses

Let’s discuss these differences in more detail.

Differences in Genetic material

The Main difference Between DNA and RNA Viruses is that DNA viruses mostly contain double-stranded DNA molecules as a genetic material while RNA viruses have single-stranded RNA.

Differences in Mutation Rate

The mutation is the major cause of changes in the genetic code of the viruses. The mutation rate of the RNA Viruses is higher than the mutation rate of DNA Viruses. In RNA mutation is higher because RNA polymerase is likely to commit errors.

The mutation level in DNA is lower because DNA polymerase is having refining activity. They are compelling intracellular parasites and they heartlessly connect with changes taking place in the host. The specificity of the DNA viruses is often concluded at the transcriptional level.

Differences in Replication

DNA replication takes place in the nucleus while RNA replication takes place in the cytoplasm.

Several RNA viruses instill the RNA to the host cell and skip the DNA host for duplication and decoding. DNA here acts as a pattern for RNA virus then transcribes it into viral proteins.

Some RNA viruses embed transcriptase enzymes that transfer RNA virus to DNA virus and combine into the host DNA. Then it follows the DNA replication process.

In DNA viruses, the integration of viral DNA is the same as how the host originally would combine DNA. The virus will instill the genetic code specifically to the membrane of the host DNA than with the help of RNA polymerase duplication happens.

Replication usually happens in the nucleus. With the formation of the viruses done during a lytic phase, the host cell membrane separates and the new viruses were released.

Difference in structural stability

DNA viruses are stable while RNA viruses are unstable. DNA viruses are constant that’s why vaccines work effectively throughout the years while RNA viruses are unstable and replace the protein coat that can bluff the immune system.

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